This colour-enhanced photomicrograph shows different species of bacteria that cause dental plaque - a colourless film that forms on teeth caused by the growth of bacterial colonies. The sample was removed from the mouth of a patient diagnosed with an aggressive form of gum disease.
What does this show?
This image shows different species of oral bacterial colonies including Capnocytophaga and Aggregatibacter growing on an agar plate. A sample of plaque was removed from a periodontal pocket - between the tooth surface and the periodontium (gum) - of a patient with gum disease. The bacterial colonies were left to grow in culture on an agar plate so they could be studied more closely. Lighting the agar plate from below helps to show the detail and differences between the morphologies of the colonies present.
The original image was colourless so a colour was added post-imaging, Derren Ready explains. “I chose a colour that not only looked good but more importantly emphasised the colony morphology. Plaque samples from patients are normally mixed with a variety of different bacterial species and in this study we wanted to identify specific species as well as patient genetic profiles. This allowed us to determine if a patient’s genetic profile would influence the likelihood of them harbouring specific disease-associated bacteria.”
What diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes?
Dental plaque is caused by the growth of bacterial colonies trying to attach to the tooth. Plaque develops naturally, and in most cases can be easily removed with regular brushing. However, if left it can harden and cause dental calculus (tartar), which is difficult to remove. If not treated this can result in tooth decay.
The bacteria within the plaque produce acid as a by-product from the fermentation of sugars, which results in acid erosion of the enamel, the outer tooth surface. In severe cases there can be a shift of bacterial species present, which can lead to aggressive forms of gum disease, along with the progression of other related diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis, causing inflammation of the gums.
First test to predict Alzheimer’s years in advance
The world’s first blood test to predict Alzheimer’s disease before symptoms occur has been developed. The test identifies 10 chemicals in the blood associated with the disease two to three years before symptoms start, but it might be able to predict Alzheimer’s decades earlier.
Globally, 35 million people are living with Alzheimer’s. It is characterised by a toxic build up of amyloid and tau proteins in the brain, which destroys the neurons. Several blood tests can diagnose the disease, but until now, none has had the sensitivity to predict its onset.
Stars in a Dusty Sky Bright star Markab anchors this dusty skyscape. At the top right corner of the frame, Markab itself marks a corner of an asterism known as the Great Square, found within the boundaries of the constellation Pegasus, the flying horse. The wide and deep telescopic view rides along for some 5 degrees or about 10 times the angular diameter of the Full Moon, with blue reflection nebulae scattered around the scene. And even though this line-of-sight looks away from the plane of our Milky Way galaxy, it covers a region known to be filled with nearby molecular clouds. The associated dust clouds, high latitude galactic cirrus, are less than 1,000 light-years distant. Still apparent, but far beyond the Milky Way, are background galaxies, like the prominent edge-on spiral NGC 7497 near picture center.
Cultivated from stem cells, lab-grown “mini-brains” structurally resemble human brains, with distinct layers and regions. While these models aren’t perfect replicas of full-size human brains, they offer a new alternative to mouse models in the study of human neurodevelopment.
NASA plans a robotic mission to search for life on Europa | io9
It looks like it’s finally going to happen, an actual mission to Jupiter’s icy moon Europa — one of the the solar system’s best candidates for hosting alien life.
Yesterday, NASA announced an injection of $17.5 billion from the federal government (down by $1.2 billion from its 2010 peak). Of this, $15 million will be allocated for “pre-formulation” work on a mission to Europa, with plans to make detailed observations from orbit and possibly sample its interior oceans with a robotic probe. Mission details are sparse, but if all goes well, it could be launched by 2025 and arriving in the early 2030s.
This adventure is made possible by generations of searchers strictly adhering to a simple set of rules; test ideas by experiment and observation, build on those ideas that past the test, reject the ones that fail. Follow the evidence wherever it leads, and question.. everything. Accept these terms, and the cosmos is yours..
Cosmos: A Space Time Odyssey - "Standing Up in the Milky Way" - Neil deGrasse Tyson
On the left is a view of the cube in perspective; on the right is a view from directly above which represents what a two-dimensional person viewing the cube from within the plane would be able to perceive.
The top animation shows a square falling through flatland on its face. The slices are always squares. So our two-dimensional person would see “a square existing for a while”.
The second animation shows a square falling through flatland on one of its edges. The slice begins as an edge, then becomes a rectangle; the rectangle grows, becomes a square for a moment, and then gets wider than it is tall. At its widest, it is as wide as the diagonal of one of the square faces of the cube. The rectangle then shrinks back to an edge at the top of the cube.
The third animation is the coolest one! The cube passes through Flatland on one of its corners. In this case, the initial contact is a point, which then becomes a small equilateral triangle. This triangle grows until it touches three of the corners of the cube. At this point, the corners of the triangles begin to be cut off by the other three faces of the cube. For a short moment, the triangle turns into a certain regular polygon... As the cube progresses through the plane, the slice turns again into a cut-off triangle (but inverted with respect to the original one) and finally becomes an equilateral triangle once again as three more vertices pass through the plane. This triangle shrinks down to a point and disappears.
In the third animation, what regular polygon does the triangle turn into halfway through its fall? If you can’t figure out, maybe this artwork by Robert Fathauer will help. (Scroll to the bottom.)
If a 4D cube entered our dimension, what would we see? If you can’t figure this out, check out this awesome page. (Click the GIF links.)
She is a scientist and inventor, who invented the illusion transmitter for which she received a patent in 1980. (This is an invention that NASA continues to use to this day.)
She went to an all-girls school where she did not receive any training in the sciences. Implicit stereotypes contributed to this, as the girls school did not teach the students about math or science, so she had to educate herself about those subjects. She later attended Morgan State University, and was one of two women in majoring in physics.
She worked at NASA, first as a data analyst and then moving on to oversee the creation of the Landsat program, then as project manager for the Space Physics Analysis Network and was associate chief for NASA’s Space Science Data Operations Office. She also participated in projects related toHalley’s Comet,ozoneresearch, and theVoyager spacecraft.
She retired in August 1995 as Space Science Data Operations Officer, serving as manager of the NASA Automated Systems Incident Response Capability and serving as chair of the SSDOO Education Committee.
She is currently an associate at theUMBCCenter for Multicore Hybrid Productivity Research, and also serves as a mentor for youth through theScience Mathematics Aerospace Research and TechnologyandNational Technical Association.